Hacked Gadgets Forum

September 18, 2017

Adafruit PCB Manufacturing Line

at 6:22 pm. Filed under Educational, Electronic Hacks

 

The Adafruit PCB Manufacturing Line is quite impressive. Ladyada (Limore Fried) goes through the entire process start to finish describing what each piece in the line does. Questions from the MIT students at the end are interesting also.

“Ladyada is the hacker @ Adafruit, founded in 2005 by MIT hacker & engineer Limor “Ladyada” Fried. Her goal was to create the best place online for learning electronics and making the best designed products for makers of all ages and skill levels. Adafruit has grown to over 100+ employees in the heart of NYC with a 50,000+ sq ft. factory. Adafruit has expanded offerings to include tools, equipment and electronics that Limor personally selects, tests and approves before going in to the Adafruit store.”


September 5, 2017

PID Controller Theory

at 11:07 pm. Filed under Educational


 
 

Dave 2 over at the EEVBlog explains how PID works. Wikipedia also has some great info.

 
 

“A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller or three term controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems and a variety of other applications requiring continuously modulated control. A PID controller continuously calculates an error value {\displaystyle e(t)} e(t) as the difference between a desired setpoint and a measured process variable and applies a correction based on proportional, integral, and derivative terms (denoted P, I, and D respectively) which give their name to the controller.

In practical terms it automatically applies accurate and responsive correction to a control function. An everyday example is the cruise control on a road vehicle; where external influences such as gradients would cause speed changes, and the driver has the ability to alter the desired set speed. The PID algorithm restores the actual speed to the desired speed in the optimum way, without delay or overshoot, by controlling the power output of the vehicle’s engine.

The first theoretical analysis and practical application was in the field of automatic steering systems for ships, developed from the early 1920s onwards. It was then utilised for automatic process control in manufacturing industry, where it was widely implemented in pneumatic, and then electronic, controllers. Today there is universal use of the PID concept in applications requiring accurate and optimised automatic control.”


May 19, 2017

Cost to Manufacturing Your Hardware Product

at 7:45 pm. Filed under Educational

 

 

Make has a great article that goes over what things to consider when wanting to manufacturer your hardware product. They bring up that the case often one of the largest costs of the product due to needing to make molds. There is the area between low and high volume manufacturing where using an off the shelf case would be cheapest but at some point getting a custom case manufactured for your product would make more sense.

“When bringing your product to market, scaling costs will likely be one of your biggest obstacles. Failing to plan for these costs will make it impossible for your product to succeed. For most products, the cost to transition from making a few prototypes to manufacturing thousands or millions of units is the most expensive obstacle.”

 


April 22, 2017

Power Supply Decoupling and Filtering

at 11:50 pm. Filed under Educational, Electronic Hacks

 

w2aew demonstrates the use of decoupling and filter cap usage. We have all seen large electrolytic caps and tons of small capacitors near chips on most circuit boards. Why are they used and without them what does the circuit look like. The live demonstration on the scope with the test PCB does a great job in demonstrating the difference with capacitor placement and operating without capacitors.

 

November 22, 2016

Poison Tap

at 10:18 pm. Filed under Complex Hacks, Computer Hacks, Educational

 

Samy Kamkar had built a device that is called Poison Tap. It is a Raspberry Pi Zero which plugs into the victims USB port. The device that looks like an Ethernet connection, your computer inherently trusts this connection and this is where the exploit starts.

  • emulates an Ethernet device over USB (or Thunderbolt)
  • hijacks all Internet traffic from the machine (despite being a low priority/unknown network interface)
  • siphons and stores HTTP cookies and sessions from the web browser for the Alexa top 1,000,000 websites
  • exposes the internal router to the attacker, making it accessible remotely via outbound WebSocket and DNS rebinding (thanks Matt Austin for rebinding idea!)
  • installs a persistent web-based backdoor in HTTP cache for hundreds of thousands of domains and common Javascript CDN URLs, all with access to the user’s cookies via cache poisoning
  • allows attacker to remotely force the user to make HTTP requests and proxy back responses (GET & POSTs) with the user’s cookies on any backdoored domain
  • does not require the machine to be unlocked
  • backdoors and remote access persist even after device is removed and attacker sashays away

 

 

 

 

 


November 18, 2016

How does Fusion Energy Work

at 9:08 pm. Filed under Educational

 

Kurzgesagt has released a great video that explains Fusion Energy.  At this time Fusion Energy is not practicable as an energy source but after Elon Musk is done with kitting out the Gigafactory he has the deep enough pockets that could toy with Fusion Energy.

“Fusion power is energy generated by nuclear fusion. Fusion reactions fuse two lighter atomic nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. It is a major area of plasma physics research that attempts to harness such reactions as a source of large scale sustainable energy. Fusion reactions are how stars transmute matter into energy.

In most large scale commercial programs, heat from neutron scattering in a controlled reaction is used to operate a steam turbine that drives electric generators. Many fusion concepts are under investigation. The current leading designs are the tokamak and inertial confinement by laser. As of January 2016, these technologies were not viable, as they cannot produce more energy than is required to initiate and sustain a fusion reaction.”

 

 

 

 

October 3, 2016

PID Motor Speed Controller Example

at 10:24 pm. Filed under DIY Hacks, Educational, Electronic Hacks

 

SomethingUnreal has built a simple system to demonstrate how a PID Motor Speed Controller works. The system is spinning a piece of cardboard on a toy DC motor. The motor is powered by an H Bridge. An optical sensor provides feedback to the system so that it can see the actual speed and adjust the H Bridge accordingly. The software running on the PC is very nice as it allows for lots of variable playing and graphical output so you can see what the system is doing.

 

 

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